If I Have Albuminuria Does It Mean I Have Kidney Disease
It may be an early sign of kidney disease, but your doctor will check you again to make sure albuminuria is not caused by something else, like not drinking enough water. If your doctor suspects that you have kidney disease, the urine test for albumin will be repeated. Three positive results over three months or more is a sign of kidney disease.
You will also be given a simple blood test to estimateGFR. GFR stands for glomerular filtration rate. Your GFR number tells you how well your kidneys are working.
You may also be given:
Imaging tests. . This produces a picture of your kidneys and urinary tract. It can show whether your kidneys have kidney stones or other problems.
A kidney biopsy. This can help find out what caused your kidney disease and how much damage to the kidneys has happened.
How The Test Is Performed
After you provide a urine sample, it is tested. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The color on the dipstick tells the provider the level of protein in your urine.
If needed, your provider may ask you to collect your urine at home over 24 hours. Your provider will tell you how to do this. Follow instructions exactly so that the results are accurate.
Protein In Urine Treatment
Proteinuria a sign of another illness. So treatment depends on figuring out what caused it. You might not need treatment if proteinuria is mild or lasts only a short time. But itâs crucial to treat kidney disease before it leads to kidney failure.
Your doctor might prescribe medication, especially if you have diabetes and/or high blood pressure. Most people will take one of two types of blood pressure medicine:
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I Does Asymptomatic Uti Cause Proteinuria/albuminuria
Several authors have reported associations between proteinuria and asymptomatic UTI . In a Swedish study of bacteriuria amongst 514 asymptomatic diabetic patients, Brauner et al . observed 29 positive urine cultures over a 1-year period. Those patients with UTI were more likely to have diabetic nephropathy prior to UTI, but the relationship between current UTI and the presence of proteinuria was not examined. Among Dutch women with type 1 diabetes, Geerlings et al . demonstrated a high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Pre-existing proteinuria, but not microalbuminuria, was a risk factor for asymptomatic UTI. The authors postulate that asymptomatic bacteriuria and other diabetic complications including nephropathy may have their origins in common pathophysiological processes . Phanichphant and Boonpucknavig provide further evidence that female glomerulopathic patients with proteinuria exceeding 1g/day are more likely to harbour asymptomatic UTI than equivalent patients with lower levels of protein excretion. Similarly, Rai et al . have demonstrated that among patients with nephrotic syndrome the concomitant presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was associated with higher urinary protein excretion . These studies provide some evidence that patients with more advanced nephropathy, defined in terms of urinary protein excretion, may be more susceptible to UTI, but they neither refute nor support the existence of a causative relationship between UTI and proteinuria.
Protein In Urine Levels & Types Of Proteinuria
Urine and its composition are important in a number of medical diagnostic procedures. Proteins are found in urine at varying levels. A protein in urine normal range is used as a standard against which all results are compared. The level of proteins in urine may temporarily rise due to diet, physical exertion and disease. Presence of unusually high levels of protein in urine is called Proteinuria or Albuminuria.
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Why Is This Test Performed
The protein urine test is a screening procedure usually performed to detect kidney disorders. The presence of protein in the urine is often associated with early renal disease.
However, protein may be present in the urine when there is no renal disease or damage. For example, it may be due to a transient condition such as strenuous exercise or dehydration.
There are also other diseases not related to kidney problems that may produce protein in urine.
How Is Protein In Urine Diagnosed
Testing for protein in urine is typically done via a test called a urinalysis. This simple urine test can detect protein levels in the urine and can be conducted in a doctors office. After your urine sample is collected, it is tested with a dipstick. When your urine has large amounts of protein, the strip of paper will change color. Technicians may also examine the sample via microscope.
If a urinalysis detects protein in the urine, your doctor will likely order an additional urine test or tests to determine if you have kidney disease. Your doctor may also conduct blood tests to measure your glomerular filtration rate , which can tell them how well your kidneys are filtering out waste, as well as other blood tests if needed to help identify the cause of the proteinuria. Additional tests may include an ultrasound, CT scan, or kidney biopsy.
When your urine is tested for protein, the test compares the amounts of albumin and creatinine, an amino acid, in your urine. A urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio higher than 30 milligrams per gram observed more than twice over a three-month period may indicate kidney disease.
If you get an abnormal result that detects protein in urine, your doctor will also probably want to check your cholesterol levels, blood sugar, and blood pressure to determine what conditions might be contributing to proteinuria.
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Fluctuations In Protein Excretion
The following conditions can cause transient increase in protein excretion:
- Urinary tract infection
- Upright posture
Proteinuria can be seen in otherwise healthy young adults because of upright posture. This is called postural proteinuria, which is usually less than 1 gram/day. In this condition, random sample of urine shows protein but first morning sample of urine does not show any protein. This condition is benign and does not denote a kidney disease. Normal people and those with chronic kidney disease have diurnal variation in excretion of protein. At night, protein excretion is lower and less variable than in daytime. Samples taken at first void in the morning are more likely to accurately predict 24-hour protein and albumin excretion.
Is Protein Normally Found In Urine
If we take a normal kidney, around 180 liters of filtrate in produced from plasma in a whole day. The amount of plasma filtered to produce 180 Liters of filtrate has around 10 kg of protein. However, only 0.01% or 1 gram of protein passes into the filtrate at the glomerulus. This is because of the filtration barrier inside the glomerulus, which restricts passage of large molecules like albumin in the urine and allows the passage of water and small solvents. Because of the filtration barrier, only small amounts of albumin is passed in the urine. Small molecules called low molecular weight proteins easily pass the filtration barrier into the filtrate. The filtered load of these small molecules is less and ultimately are excreted in even lesser amounts because the LMW proteins are again reabsorbed by kidney tubules. There are also small amounts of proteins in the urine which are not filtered but directly secreted into the urine in the kidney .
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How To Treat Proteinuria
Proteinuria is not a disease but rather a condition caused by another illness. As such, the treatment is mainly focused on resolving or managing the underlying cause.
For instance, the symptoms of acute kidney injuryâformerly known as acute kidney failureâwill usually clear once the underlying condition is treated. In most cases, the kidney function will return to normal with no permanent damage to the kidneys.
With chronic kidney disease , the focus is placed on improving the function of the kidneys to slow the progression of the disease. With respect to proteinuria, lifestyle measures will help control diabetes and high blood pressure as ways to slow progression of the disease.
In addition, medications like ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers help reduce urine protein levels.Statin drugs, used to reduce cholesterol, appear to have similar benefits in people with CKD.
What Does Protein In Urine Mean
When your urine has a high amount of protein, then it is called proteinuria. The kidney is an essential part of our body. It filters blood, absorbs protein, and removes the bodys waste in the form of urine. But for some reason, if your kidney is not performing properly, then the kidney can leak some protein into the urine, which causes a high amount of protein in the urine, also known as proteinuria.
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What Does It Mean If You Have Protein In Your Urine
One of the ways that your provider assesses your kidney function is to check for protein in the urine. Chances are youve given a urine sample many times for this very reason. Proteinuria is a term that means that there is an increased amount of protein in the urine. There are many causes of proteinuria, but what you need to know is that it could mean that your kidneys may not be working as they should. Heres what to know about proteinuria.
How Is Proteinuria Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will use a dipstick test to help diagnose proteinuria. During a dipstick test, youll pee into a special container at your healthcare providers office or a hospital. Then, your healthcare provider will place a thin plastic stick coated with special chemicals into the container. If too much of a protein is in your pee, the dipstick changes color.
Your healthcare provider will conduct a urinalysis on the rest of your pee. A urinalysis examines your pees visual, chemical and microscopic aspects under a microscope. Your healthcare provider looks for substances that dont belong in your pee. These substances may include red blood cells, white blood cells, bacteria and salt or protein crystals that can develop into kidney stones.
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How Can I Know If I Have Protein In My Urine
When your kidneys start having problems and you do not have a lot of protein in your urine, you will not feel symptoms. The only way to know if you have protein in your urine, it is to have a urine analysis. The urine protein test measures the amount of albumin in your urine, compared to the amount of creatinine in your urine.
When renal damage is worsening and large amounts of protein through the urine, the following symptoms may be observed:
- Foaming or sparkling urine when using the bathroom
- Swelling in the hands, feet, abdomen or face
If you have any of these symptoms, the damage caused to your kidneys can be serious. Talk to your doctor immediately on what can cause your symptoms and what treatment is the best for your situation.
Urine Protein And Urine Protein To Creatinine Ratio
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- Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio
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Detecting And Quantifying Proteinuria
Dipstick analysis is used in most outpatient settings to semiquantitatively measure the urine protein concentration. In the absence of protein, the dipstick panel is yellow. Proteins in solution interfere with the dye-buffer combination, causing the panel to turn green. False-positive results occur with alkaline urine when the dipstick is immersed too long with highly concentrated urine with gross hematuria in the presence of penicillin, sulfonamides or tolbutamide and with pus, semen or vaginal secretions. False-negative results occur with dilute urine and when the urinary proteins are nonalbumin or low molecular weight.
The results are graded as negative , trace , 1+ , 2+ , 3+ or 4+ . This method preferentially detects albumin and is less sensitive to globulins or parts of globulins .12
The sulfosalicylic acid turbidity test qualitatively screens for proteinuria. The advantage of this easily performed test is its greater sensitivity for proteins such as Bence Jones. The SSA method requires a few milliliters of freshly voided, centrifuged urine. An equal amount of 3 percent SSA is added to that specimen. Turbidity will result from protein concentrations as low as 4 mg per dL . False-positive results can occur when a patient is taking penicillin or sulfonamides and within three days after the administration of radiographic dyes. A false-negative result occurs with highly buffered alkaline urine or a dilute specimen.
What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
- How do you know I have proteinuria?
- What condition caused me to develop proteinuria?
- What tests do you recommend?
- Do I have mild or temporary proteinuria?
- What medications or treatments do you recommend?
- Should I make any changes to my diet or lifestyle?
- If I dont have proteinuria, what other condition might I have?
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Is There Anything Else I Should Know
The different methods of detecting protein in the urine vary in performance. For example, a positive dipstick protein may be elevated due to other sources of protein, such as blood, semen, or vaginal secretions in the urine. Since it measures primarily albumin, the dipstick may occasionally be normal when significant quantities of other proteins are present in the urine.
A 24-hour urine sample gives the protein elimination rate over 24 hours. It will be accurate only if all of the urine is collected. The protein to creatinine ratio is more of a snapshot of how much protein is in the urine at the time the sample is collected. If it is elevated, then protein is present if it is negative, the amounts or the type of protein released in urine may not be detectable at that time.
What Does Leukocytes And Protein In Urine Mean
Finding both leukocytes and protein in small quantity in human urine is common and may not indicate any infection. But detection of excess leukocytes and protein in urine can be a precursor to serious health ailments. The normal range of leukocytes which should be present in the urine of an adult human being is typically 2-5 WBCs/HPF is nothing but Leukocytes) or less.
Detecting high amounts of Leukocytes and Protein in urine indicates kidney ailments and Urinary Tract Infection. Especially high protein in urine levels indicates kidney issues since healthy kidneys do not allow passing of significant amount of protein into the urine. This increased level of protein in urine is known as Proteinuria.
During pregnancy, regular urine checkups are suggested to the pregnant women. This is basically to test the protein and leukocytes level in the urine of the pregnant women. Pregnant women are at a high risk of contracting Urinary Tract Infection and thus both the levels of protein and leukocytes need to be kept in check or else requisite precautions need to be taken by the woman.
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Ii Does Symptomatic Uti Cause Proteinuria/albuminuria
Proteinuria is a common finding amongst patients with symptomatic UTI, although it has poor specificity for UTI. Sultana et al. subjected urine from 400 consecutive patients presenting with typical features of UTI to protein-reagent-strip testing 87 of these patients subsequently had culture-confirmed , predominantly E.Coli UTI. The sensitivity and specificity of protein reagent strip testing for detecting UTI were 71 and 53%, respectively. Another study examined 60 female patients in the emergency department with a triage diagnosis of UTI, 24 of whom subsequently had culture-proven, predominantly E.Coli UTI. A positive urinalysis test had sensitivity and specificity for UTI of 83 and 50%, respectively . Sandberg et al . reported significant albuminuria in 8 of 15 non-pregnant women with cystitis. Amongst 100 consecutive hospitalized patients with culture-confirmed UTI, a reagent-strip result trace for protein showed a sensitivity for UTI of 63%. In contrast, Van Nostrand et al . used a stepwise binary logistic regression analysis to test the ability of various urinalyses to predict infection amongst 225 urine samples, 33 of which were culture positive. Proteinuria did not have a statistically significant independent relationship with presence of UTI .
When Should I See My Healthcare Provider
Contact your healthcare provider if:
- You pee more frequently than you usually do, or it hurts to pee.
- Your pee is foamy or bubbly.
- You feel nauseous or vomit.
- You feel dizzy, weak or lightheaded.
- You have any swelling or puffiness around your face, abdomen or lower body.
- Your symptoms dont improve after treatment.
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Is There Anything Else I Need To Know About A Protein In Urine Test
At-home test kits that check for protein in urine test are available without a prescription. The kits usually include dipsticks and instructions for how to collect and test your urine sample. At-home urine tests are easy to do and provide accurate results as long as you carefully follow all instructions. Ask your provider which protein in urine test is best for you.
Is Protein In Urine Serious
Yes, protein in your urine is serious. Proteinuria may increase your risk of death from heart disease and cardiovascular disease.
Occasionally, proteinuria is an early sign of chronic kidney disease , although you can have CKD and have normal levels of protein in your urine. CKD is a gradual loss of your kidney functions, which may eventually require a kidney replacement therapy, dialysis or kidney transplant. Diabetes and high blood pressure pressure can damage your kidneys. Theyre the two most common causes of kidney disease.
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