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A high-resolution protein structure is the basis of a reliable molecular docking protocol. The genome of SARS-COV-2 encodes many essential proteins, including the nucleocapsid protein, Spike protein, Envelope protein, Membrane protein, and coronavirus main protease for its replication in the host genome, which plays an essential role in cleaving polyproteins into replication-related proteins and regulation of gene expression . Among these encoded viral proteins, heavily glycosylated S trimers bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and mediate entry of virions into target cells .
Shikha Saxena, Deepshikha Pande Katare, in, 2022
Where Does The Vaccine Go
Here’s a peer-reviewed study that shows where intramuscular vaccines travel in macaques . Vaccines mostly remain near the site of injection and local lymph nodes.
This makes sense: Lymph nodes produce white blood cells and antibodies to protect us from disease. A key part of the lymphatic system, lymph nodes also clean up fluids and remove waste materials. Finding pieces of spike protein in the lymph nodes is completely normal, because lymph nodes act as the trash removal service for the body. That means the vaccine did its job and will be cleared from the body.
Another peer-reviewed study tested exactly where an mRNA vaccine went in mice. Most of the mRNA vaccine stayed in the injection site muscle where you get the shot. Look at Table 1. A lot of mRNA vaccine was found in local lymph nodes, which peaked about eight hours after the shot was given. A much smaller amount of mRNA vaccine went to farther away lymph nodes.
Study On Vaccine Transfer Into Breast Milk Distorted
Finally, Bridle says there is evidence that the mRNA vaccines get transferred through breast milk, citing a preprintfrom Singapore that tested milk samples from 10 lactating health care workers after they were immunized with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. The unpublished study found antibodies in the breast milk from all of the workers and minimal amounts of vaccine mRNA.
36 out of 40 samples did not show detectable levels of vaccine mRNA. The highest concentration of BNT162b2 mRNA in the tested samples was 2 ng/mL a hypothetical 0.667% of the original vaccine dose being transferred in 100 mL of human milk, the study says. This miniscule amount of mRNA is expected to be readily destroyed by enzymes in the infants gut, the authors say in the discussion.
The study concluded lactating individuals should continue breastfeeding after being vaccinated.
Bridle omits this information in his 37-page document, instead saying that detection of the mRNA was downplayed.
Now we know the spike protein gets into circulation. Any protein in the blood will get concentrated in breast milk, he said on the radio show. Looking into the adverse event database in the United States, we have found evidence of suckling infants experiencing bleeding disorders in the gastrointestinal tract.
It is unlikely that enough of the spike protein could accumulate in breast milk to have any impact on infants that consume it, NIAID told us in a statement.
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S And Results Of Meta
The values found in the different periods considered in our study are displayed in Supplementary Tables S1 and S2. As shown in Figure 1, among the results from PubMed related to our six keywords , Vaccine and Spike obtained the highest values of estimated treatment effect . This showed that both of these terms would obtain accurate and reliable results. According to the scientific articles in the literature, these two terms were also the most studied . The confidence interval , represented by the diamond, showed that the analysis was very precise and summarized the results well. The CI values, representing the estimates of the effect, and the heterogeneity value showed us that the results between the studies are very divergent .
Figure 1 Brief meta-analysis study based on the six keywords used. The white lines represent a large dataset for the selected keywords.
Figure 2 Introductory meta-analysis based on the average number of publications before and during the pandemic period.
The main topics addressed in this review are to the left of Figure 2, which indicates the paucity of studies for the relationship between Spike and the respective terms. This motivated our study and indicated that new studies are required to achieve positive correlations and associations.
Budding Of Viruses From The Plasma Membrane
Enveloped viruses escape from their host cell’s membrane by a budding process that resembles vesicle formation in reverse . Simons and his co-workers propose that, for togaviruses such as Semliki Forest virus, the association of the viral spike protein, which resides mostly on the external leaflet of the plasma membrane, with sites on the virus capsid surface, allows the capsid to wrap the membrane around itself . However, they do not address the problem of how this bending force is generated. We propose that the mechanisms of vesicle formation and virus budding have a similar physical basis. There are two possibilities.
There are several observations that support our model for virus budding:
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How The Spike Protein Affects The Brain
Brain fog, loss of taste and smell, fatigue, headache, encephalopathy , anxiety, and even psychosisa broad range of neurological symptoms were brought to attention after the COVID pandemic, appearing in long COVID and vaccine adverse events.
These problems might be caused by a microscopic biomoleculethe spike protein.
The spike protein is found in the SARS-CoV-2 virus and can be produced in the body via infection and mRNA vaccination. Both of these introductory mechanisms impact multiple organ systems. One organ system of interest is the nervous systemthe system responsible for controlling our bodily functions and communicating with the sensory world. In shortour brain.
How Long COVID and mRNA Vaccines Are Related to Spike Protein
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Molecule Of The Month: Sars
Coronavirus spike protein binds to receptors on cell surfaces, and is a target for vaccine development.
Spike protein from SARS-CoV, with one receptor binding domain in the up position, and a closed conformation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike. The S1 fragment is shown in magenta and the S2 fragment in red, with glycosylation in lighter shades.
Cut to Size
Illustration of a complex of the spike protein bound to its receptor ACE2 . ACE2 is part of a complex with the amino acid transporter B0AT1 . The cell membrane is shown schematically in light blue at the bottom.
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It Is At The Scene Of The Crime
One of the remarkable observations about SARS-CoV-2 infection is the clinical manifestation of venous and arterial thrombosis. Multiple studies have described thrombotic complications of the infection including stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic arterial embolism, and deep venous thrombosis with pulmonary embolism. In my practice I have seen virtually every one of these complications. De Michele and colleagues studied patients with COVID-19 in 2020, before there were vaccines for the population.
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Attachment Entry And Uncoating
The attachment to the apical surface of enterocytes is apparently mediated through the spike proteins, but the HE proteins may be involved as well. Entry or penetration of BToV into enterocytes is apparently by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Lysosomal degradation of vesicles containing the virus is probably responsible for uncoating and subsequent release of the BToV RNA. The site at which this occurs has not yet been determined.
EToV replication occurs in the cytoplasm. Preformed tubular capsids bud through membranes of the Golgi stack and of the endoplasmic reticulum. A host cell nuclear function seems to be required since UV preirradiation of cells, actinomycin D, and -amanitin have been reported to reduce virus yields. The replication cycle takes around 1012 h to complete.
Xin Li, … Patrick C.Y. Woo, in, 2019
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How Long Mrna Lasts In The Body
The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines work by introducing mRNA into your muscle cells. The cells make copies of the spike protein and the mRNA is quickly degraded . The cell breaks the mRNA up into small harmless pieces. mRNA is very fragile that’s one reason why mRNA vaccines must be so carefully preserved at very low temperatures.
Damage To The Cardiovascular System And Blood Clots
The cardiac and the myocardial systems of the heart contain a very important type of cell: the pericardial cells, which are outside the endothelial cells of blood vessels and are usually combined with endothelial cells to help blood vessels transmit different signals.
A study published in Clinical Science discovered that when the SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the body, spike proteins will bind to the CD147 receptors on the surface of the pericardial cells, making them more likely to shed from the surface of the endothelial cells. This will affect some of the functions of the endothelial cells and accelerate the death of the vascular wall cells.
In addition, spike proteins themselves can directly stimulate pericardial cells to produce more pro-inflammatory factors that can damage the myocardium and cause blood clots.
Spike proteins can also induce thrombosis, which is when blood clots block veins. Another experiment published in the BioRxiv preprint repository investigated how platelets would change after being stimulated by spike proteins.
The experiment compared the SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein with another viral protein called VSV and found that more platelets were induced to clot in the presence of the spike proteins.
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Ways Spike Protein Harms The Body And How To Remove It
The signature protein of COVID-19 and the vaccine can undermine cell function with long-lasting effects
Since the COVID-19 pandemic swept across the world more than two years ago, more than 4.5 billion people worldwide have become fully vaccinated against it. Now more and more people are concerned that the spike proteins used in the vaccines and present in the virus are the cause of long COVID syndrome.
The spike protein, also known as the S protein, is the largest structural protein in the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19. Its a signature structure that protrudes from the surface of the virus, creating the crown-like shape that coronaviruses get their name from. Corona is Latin for crown or wreath.
When the pandemic first started to spread, peoples understanding of the spike protein was very limited. It was thought that the spike protein only played the role of invading our cells by binding to the ACE receptors on our cell walls. However, scientists have slowly discovered that the effects of this protein are multifaceted, and it interacts with other cellular tissues besides the ACE2 receptors.
The Deadly Coronavirus Spike Protein
Antivaxxers are citing three papers to support their claim that spike protein produced by COVID-19 vaccines is dangerous. Unsurprisingly and as usual, theyre misinterpreting the studies and misrepresenting their significance. COVID-19 vaccines are, in fact, very safe.
Over the last month, there have been three new papers that have been making the rounds among antivaxxers as scientific proof that not only is the coronavirus spike protein highly toxic to the vaccinated but that it is produced by the vaccinated in amounts that can cause those toxic effects. I thought Id take some time to take a look at them. The first two papers are often presented as slam dunk evidence that the coronavirus spike protein is toxic and deadly , while the last paper is presented as evidence that mRNA vaccines produce enough spike protein to poison recipients. Spoiler alert: None of these papers show what antivaxxers represent them as showing, especially the third one.
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How Long Do Spike Proteins Last In The Body
The Infectious Disease Society of America estimates that the spike proteins that were generated by COVID-19 vaccines last up to a few weeks, like other proteins made by the body. The immune system quickly identifies, attacks and destroys the spike proteins because it recognizes them as not part of you. This “learning the enemy” process is how the immune system figures out how to defeat the real coronavirus. It remembers what it saw and when you are exposed to coronavirus in the future it can rapidly mount an effective immune response.
The Novavax vaccine introduces the actual protein into your body to produce an immune response similar to many other vaccines currently in use.
How Long Covid And Mrna Vaccines Are Related To Spike Protein
Using animal models and cell culture methods, researchers have studied in depth the effects of the spike protein on the nervous system.
Long COVID is often associated with experiencing oxygen deprivation with severe infection, but may also be caused by the spike protein.
With SARS-CoV-2 infection, the spike protein binds to specific receptors on the host cell. This allows the genetic material of the virus to enter the host cell in order to make more virus particles.
In contrast, mRNA vaccination introduces mRNA into cells that cause them to produce large quantities of the spike protein over time. While the COVID-19 vaccines are administered intramuscularly, mRNA from the COVID-19 vaccine has been found in the brain as reported by the European Medicines Agency report for the Moderna vaccine.
In mouse models, spike protein introduction into the brain caused mice to behave anxiously, have poor memory, and have reduced environmental curiosity as measured by behavioral tests. These findings are similar to the cognitive problems experienced by recovered COVID-19 patients, including deficits in attention, language, executive functioning, processing speed, and memory.
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Antibodies Based On The Sars
The S protein is the main antigen component in all structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Unlike other functional proteins of SAS-CoV-2, it is responsible for inducing the host immune response, and nAbs targeting the S protein can induce protective immunity against viral infection. Similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, research on nAbs of SARS-CoV-2 mainly includes mAbs, antigen-binding fragments, single-chain variable region fragments, and single-domain antibodies , which target S1 RBD, S1-NTD, or S2 regions to prevent S2-mediated fusion . On the other hand, multiple SARS-CoV-2 vaccine types are under development, including RNA/DNA-based formulations, recombinant viral epitopes, adenovirus-based vectors, and purified inactivated virus .
Working On A Manuscript
Forty-six deidentified human nasopharyngeal swab samples collected in Columbus, Ohio, in September 2020 , January 2021 , and February 2021 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse transcription PCR with Ct values 30. These samples were used for viral isolation at the Plant and Animal Agrosecurity Research Facility at the Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center at enhanced biosafety level 3. The samples were stored in viral transport medium at 4°C for less than a week and were centrifuged at 2000 x g for 5 min at 4°C to remove cell debris. Two hundred L of filtered supernatant per well was used to inoculate Vero E6 cell monolayers in 24-well plates.
Table 1 SARS-CoV-2 strains isolated in this studyFig. 1
Identification of the OSU.20G variant. Distribution of nucleotide substitutions in the genome of SARS-CoV-2 OSU.20G variant 1277C3 compared with the 20G base strain 1265C3. Summary of the substitutions in 1277C3. Frequency of the substitutions identified in 1277C3 from GISAID globally and in the USA . 3D structural models for SARS-CoV-2 S protein trimers. H677 is labeled in blue, and Q677 is labeled in red. The polybasic cleavage site is in magenta.
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The Deadly Spike Protein And Vaccine Safety
As I stated near the beginning of this post, antivaxxers strive mightily, above all, to claim that vaccines are dangerous to those receiving them and those around the recipients, all with added conspiracy theories. It doesnt matter how much they have to misinterpret or misrepresent scientific studies to do so. Theyll find a way to make their misrepresentations sound like plausible evidence that vaccines are dangerous, and theyve certainly been doing this with COVID-19 vaccines, starting with pointing to any study that finds a role for the spike protein alone in causing cell damage. Such studies are critical to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 infects cells, replicates itself, and causes so much damage to the lungs. Its also important to note that target effects matter. Location matters. The main infection starts in the lungs, which is where the highest concentration of virus and therefore spike protein would be expected in the case of real infections. In the case of vaccination, the location is the muscle cells of the shoulder, and any spike protein that escapes is rapidly diluted in the bloodstream to the pg/ml range.
Virus Cell Entry Assay
The potencies of HR peptides in inhibiting viral infection were determined using a recombinant MHV-A59, MHV-EFLM, which expresses the firefly luciferase gene . LR7 cells were maintained as monolayer cultures in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum . LR7 cells grown in 96-well plates were inoculated with MHV-EFLM in DMEM at a multiplicity of infection of 5 in the presence of various concentrations of peptide ranging from 0.4 to 50 M. After 1 h, the cells were washed with DMEM and the medium was replaced with DMEM containing 10% FCS. At 5 h postinfection , the cells were harvested in 50 l of 1× Passive Lysis buffer according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Upon mixing 10 l of cell lysate with 40 l of substrate, luciferase activity was measured using a Wallac Betalumino meter.
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