Student Exploration: Rna And Protein Synthesis
Directions: Follow the instructions to go through the simulation. Respond to the questions andprompts in the orange boxes.
Vocabulary: amino acid, anticodon, codon, gene, messenger RNA, nucleotide, ribosome, RNA, RNApolymerase, transcription, transfer RNA, translation
Prior Knowledge Questions
To communicate my design plans with the construction crew, I would show them my planand I would then tell them how to do it.
I think cells use DNA as their design plans for proteins.
Gizmo Warm-upJust as a construction crew uses blueprints to build a house, a cell uses DNAas plans for building proteins. In addition to DNA, another nucleic acid, calledRNA , is involved in making proteins. In the RNA and Protein Synthesis Gizmo,you will use both DNA and RNA to construct a protein out of amino acids.
Look at the SIMULATION pane. Is the displayed segmenta part of a DNAor RNA molecule? How do you know?
It is a part of a DNA molecule, since there is a double helix.
The enzymes split the hydrogens bonds in the middle.
Get the Gizmo ready:
If necessary, click Release enzyme.
Everyone Uses The Same Login: Elm: Science Password: 123456
Directions: Follow the instructions to the questions and prompts in the orange boxes.Vocabulary: amino acid, anticodon, codon, gene, messenger RNA, nucleotide, ribosome, RNA, RNApolymerase, transcription, transfer RNA, translationPrior Knowledge Questions
Suppose you want to design and build a house. How woconstruction crew that would work on the house? uld you communicate your design plans with the
Cells build large, complicated molecules, such as proteins. What do you think cells use as their design plans for proteins?
Gizmo Warm-up Just as a construction crew uses blueprints to build a house, a cell uses DNAas plans for building proteins. In addition to DNA, anothe RNA , is involved in making proteins. In the RNA and Protein Synthesis r nucleic acid, calledGizmo,you will use both DNA and RNA to construct a protein out of amino acids.3. DNA is composed of the bases adenine , cytosine thymine . RNA is composed of adenine, cytosine, guan, guanine , andine, and uracil .
Look at the SIMULATION pane. Is the displayed segment a part of a DNAor RNA molecule? How do you know?
4. RNA polymerase occur quickly. Click theis a type of enzyme. Enzymes help chemical reactions Release enzyme button, and describe what happens.
Get the Gizmo ready: If necessary, click Release enzyme.
Which RNA base bonded with the thymine?
Observe: In molecules of RNA, uracil takes the place of which DNA base?
What is the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA strand you built?
Rna And Protein Synthesis
Go through the process of synthesizing proteins through RNA transcription and translation. Learn about the many steps involved in protein synthesis including: unzipping of DNA, formation of mRNA, attaching of mRNA to the ribosome, and linking of amino acids to form a protein.
5 Minute Preview
Use for 5 minutes a day.
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Adapting For Online Learning
1 Not adaptable 2 Possible to adapt 3 Easy to adapt
Instructors could provide students their own pizza recipe and the worksheet to do this activity individually, or instructors could distribute an electronic version of the worksheet and recipe and ask students to complete the activity in small groups online.
Decoding A Protein Pizza
Your instructor will give you a DNA âpizza recipeâ in DNA base triplets. Use your knowledge of transcription and translation to figure out what kind of pizza you have!
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What Is The Genetic Code
At its heart, the genetic code is the set of “rules” that a cell uses to interpretthe nucleotide sequence within a molecule of mRNA. This sequence is broken intoa series of three-nucleotide units known as codons . The three-letter nature of codons means that the fournucleotides found in mRNA A, U, G, and C can produce a total of 64different combinations. Of these 64 codons, 61 represent amino acids, and theremaining three represent stop signals, which trigger the end of proteinsynthesis. Because there are only 20 different amino acids but 64 possiblecodons, most amino acids are indicated by more than one codon. This phenomenonis known as redundancy or degeneracy, and it is important to thegenetic code because it minimizes the harmful effects that incorrectly placednucleotides can have on protein synthesis. Yet another factor that helpsmitigate these potentially damaging effects is the fact that there is nooverlap in the genetic code. This means that the three nucleotides within aparticular codon are a part of that codon only thus, they are not included in either of the adjacent codons.
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4. Extend your thinking: Sometimes errors occur during transcription or translation. Examinethe codon chart on the previous page. Notice that each amino acid is coded for by severaldifferent codons. For example, alanine is coded for by GCU, GCC, GCA, and GCG.How might this offset transcription or translation errors?Slight changes to a codon would result in no changeto the amino acid coded for, and thus no change to the protein. This decreases the chancethat a transcription or translation error will cause a faulty protein to form.
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A U G C C U A U U G A U G G C C C A U A A G U U
Predict: How would a change to the sequence of nucleotides in a DNA segment affect the mRNA transcribed from the DNA?
Infer: Why do you think stop and start codon signalsare necessary for protein synthesis?
I think start and stop codon signals are necessary for protein synthesis, so the tRNA knowswhere to start and knows where to end.
Transcription: is when a mRNA strand is made complimentary to the DNA strand it is building from, in the three steps of initiation, elongation, and termination.
Translation: is when a mRNA codon is read in the ribosome, then a tRNA molecule goes ahead and brings the anticodons with it enzymes, that will connect to form proteins, in the three steps of initiation, elongation, and termination, at the ribosome.
Get the Gizmo ready:
You will not need to use the Gizmo for this activity.
Introduction: Inside a ribosome, amino acids are linked together to form a protein molecule. As the chain ofamino acids grows, it folds and coils to form a three-dimensional shape. The complex shape that resultsdetermines the properties of the protein. Proteins have a wide variety of structures and perform many essentialfunctions in living things.
A sequence of DNA that codes for a specific protein is called a gene. By coding for proteins, genes determinean organisms inherited traits.
What Happens Next
After a polypeptide chain is synthesized, it may undergo additional processes. For example, it may assume a folded shape due to interactions between its amino acids. It may also bind with other polypeptides or with different types of molecules, such as lipids to be modified for the specific job they will do.7 Summary
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