To Diagnose And Monitor Infection
If you have symptoms of an infection in your chest or airways such as dry cough, sore throat, runny nose and sneezing, your doctor may perform a CRP test to decide whether or not to prescribe antibiotics. Infection caused by bacteria results in a greater rise in CRP compared with infections caused by viruses. Antibiotics are only effective against infections caused by bacteria and are not effective against infections caused by viruses.
A CRP level less than 10 mg per L suggests that you don’t have a bacterial infection and therefore a prescription for an antibiotic is likely to do more harm than good. This is because it’s likely that the potential side effects of the antibiotic medication outweigh any clinical benefits.
What Is The Difference Between Crp And Hs
As youve no doubt guessed, the difference between CRP and hs-CRP is contained in the hs abbreviation high sensitivity.
Traditionally, CRP, or C-reactive protein, is measured down to concentrations of 3 to 5 mg/L hs-CRP is measured down to concentrations of approximately 0.3 mg/L. This improved sensitivity allows hs-CRP to be used to detect low levels of chronic inflammation.
Why The Test Is Performed
The CRP test is a general test to check for inflammation in the body. It is not a specific test. That means it can reveal that you have inflammation somewhere in your body, but it cannot pinpoint the exact location. The CRP test is often done with the ESR or sedimentation rate test which also looks for inflammation.
You may have this test to:
- Check for flare-ups of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis , lupus, or vasculitis.
- Determine if anti-inflammatory medicine is working to treat a disease or condition.
However, a low CRP level does not always mean that there is no inflammation present. Levels of CRP may not be increased in people with rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. The reason for this is unknown.
A more sensitive CRP test, called a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein assay, is available to determine a person’s risk for heart disease.
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How Does Deep Cleaning Treat Periodontitis
During a deep cleaning, your provider removes plaque. Providers use methods called scaling and root planing, which they may do with a laser:
- Scaling scrapes off the tartar from above and below the gum line.
- Root planing gets rid of the rough spots on the roots of the teeth. It helps remove the bacteria that cause periodontitis.
What Is The Most Likely Cause
Chronically elevated CRP levels often signal RA or infectious arthritis, which occurs when a joint becomes infected.
Significantly elevated CRP levels tend to occur with severe infections, such as bacterial or fungal infections. Bacterial infection is responsible for about of the cases involving CRP levels higher than 50 mg/l.
Sometimes, higher levels also occur with certain cancers and other conditions that can cause significant inflammation.
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What Is An Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
An erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a type of blood test that measures how quickly erythrocytes settle at the bottom of a test tube that contains a blood sample. Normally, red blood cells settle relatively slowly. A faster-than-normal rate may indicate inflammation in the body. Inflammation is part of your immune response system. It can be a reaction to an infection or injury. Inflammation may also be a sign of a chronic disease, an immune disorder, or other medical condition.
Other names: ESR, SED rate sedimentation rate Westergren sedimentation rate
What Causes Periodontitis
A buildup of bacteria in the mouth can eventually cause periodontitis.
All of our mouths have bacteria thats healthy and normal. But some types of bacteria mix with mucus and other substances. This combination forms a film on our teeth called plaque. When you brush and floss, you get rid of plaque. But if you dont do so regularly, the plaque hardens and forms tartar. You cant get rid of tartar through brushing you need a professional dental cleaning.
The buildup of plaque and tartar leads to gingivitis, an inflammation of the gingivae . Your gums start to swell and bleed. You can treat gingivitis through good dental care, including brushing, flossing and professional cleanings. But untreated gingivitis leads to periodontitis.
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What Happens During A C
A CRP test involves a blood draw, usually from a vein in your arm. The procedure is quick and you may feel a slight pinch or sting. There is no special preparation for the test. Bruising can occur afterward.
Make sure your doctor knows about all the medications you take, including over-the-counter products. Some drugs can affect CRP test results. This includes statins, magnesium supplements, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , such as ibuprofen .
What Does It Mean If Your C Reactive Protein Is High
C-reactive protein is a protein that your body produces in response to inflammation. Inflammation can be caused by many things, such as infection, injuries, or smoking.
What does it mean if your C reactive protein is high?
C-reactive protein is a biomarker that is used to measure the amount of inflammation in the body. Elevated levels of CRP indicate that there is inflammation somewhere in the body.
There are many conditions and diseases that can cause inflammation, including infection, autoimmune disorders, cancer, and heart disease. So, if your CRP levels are high, it could be an indication of any number of health problems. It’s important to get checked out by a doctor to determine the root cause of the inflammation.
High C-reactive protein levels indicate that you have inflammation somewhere in your body. This could be due to an infection, autoimmune disease, or any other type of inflammatory condition. It’s important to determine the cause of the inflammation so that you can address it and hopefully improve your health.
C-reactive protein is a protein that your body produces in response to inflammation. Inflammation can be caused by many things, such as infection, injuries, or smoking. When CRP levels are high, it means that you have a lot of inflammation in your body.
A high C reactive protein level is a sign that you have inflammation in your body. Inflammation is linked with many health conditions, including heart disease, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease.
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Can Sepsis Be Prevented
To prevent sepsis, you should try to prevent getting an infection:
- Take good care of any chronic health conditions that you have
- Practice good hygiene, such as handwashing
- Keep cuts clean and covered until healed
NIH: National Institute of General Medical SciencesCenters for Disease Control and Prevention
What Does A High C Reactive Protein Level Indicate
A high level of CRP in the blood can be a marker of inflammation. A wide variety of conditions can cause it, from an infection to cancer. High CRP levels can also indicate that theres inflammation in the arteries of the heart, which can mean a higher risk of heart attack.
What causes mildly elevated CRP?
A number of things may cause your CRP levels to be slightly higher than normal. These include obesity, lack of exercise, cigarette smoking, and diabetes. Certain medicines can cause your CRP levels to be lower than normal. These include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , aspirin, and steroids.
Should I be concerned about high C reactive protein?
Elevated CRP is associated with increased risk of heart disease. While its uncertain how much reducing CRP itself can help, elevated levels are a sign that you likely have other risk factors that need to be addressed with aggressive measures.
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Addressing Your Risk Factors
A number of risk factors may contribute to CRP levels, and there may be benefits to taking steps to reduce your CRP levels. Treatment aimed at lowering CRP levels may reduce cardiovascular risk, but researchers are still working to understand these relationships.
Elevated CRP levels are almost always associated with other risk factors for heart disease, including:
Talk to your healthcare provider about your heart disease risk factors and what can be done to address them and your CRP levels.
This may involve habit changes, weight loss efforts, and/or medication.
Elevated CRP is associated with increased risk of heart disease. While it’s uncertain how much reducing CRP itself can help, elevated levels are a sign that you likely have other risk factors that need to be addressed with aggressive measures.
When Should You Have C
Checking the CRP level for the entire adult population is not recommended. Some experts recommend checking the serum CRP level routinely along with the cholesterol level however, although this is not widely accepted. Ideally, for cardiac risk testing, it is advisable to use the average between two separate CRP levels drawn two weeks part.
More importantly, the CRP level can provide additional information about an individuals cardiovascular risk in conjunction with other known cardiac risk factors, such as,
- cholesterol-lowering medication.
People with elevated C-reactive protein levels may be advised by their treating doctors. Statin drugs are at the forefront of the recommended cholesterol-lowering agents. Lowering of CRP may be seen with the use of statin drugs even without significant improvement of the cholesterol profile.
Reduction of CRP level has also been noted in individuals with known cardiovascular disease who begin aspirin therapy. In those without known cardiovascular disease or significant risk factors for it, aspirin use is not generally recommended. Some diabetic medications have also been shown to reduce CRP levels in people with or without diabetes mellitus. This effect was seen independent of their glucose-lowering effects.
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What To Expect During The Test
A nurse or other healthcare professional will draw blood from a vein, usually on the inside of your elbow or the back of your hand.
First, they clean the skin over the vein with antiseptic. Next, they wrap an elastic band around your arm, causing your veins to bulge out slightly. The healthcare professional then inserts a small needle into the vein and collects your blood in a sterile vial.
After the healthcare professional collects your blood sample, they remove the elastic band around your arm and ask you to apply pressure to the puncture site with gauze. They may use tape or a bandage to hold the gauze in place.
Why Do You Need A C
Your doctor may order a CRP test if they suspect you have a condition causing inflammation. There are several acute and chronic conditions that can result in increased CRP levels, including:
Results for the standard CRP test fall into four categories:
- Slight elevation: 0.31.0 mg/L
- Moderate elevation: 1.010.0 mg/L
- High elevation: 10 mg/L or higher
- Severe: 50 mg/L
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What Are The Causes Of Elevated C
The chronic inflammation behind an elevated CRP level may be influenced by genetics, a sedentary lifestyle, too much stress, and exposure to environmental toxins such as secondhand tobacco smoke. Diet has a huge impact, particularly eating habits that include a lot of refined, processed and manufactured foods.
What Are Other Causes Of Chills
As many as two in three people experience chills and shivering after receiving general anesthesia for a surgery. Even if you arent feeling cold, a drop in body temperature may cause you to shiver as you come out of the anesthesia.
Some people tremble from a surge of adrenaline after a traumatic event like an accident or near accident. Psychological trauma, including post-traumatic stress disorder , may also make you feel shaky.
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Crp And Heart Disease
American Heart Association in 2019 states that when considering all risk factors, people with CRP levels greater than or equal to 2 milligrams per liter may need more intense measures to prevent cardiovascular disease.
Elevated levels of CRP may have an important role in identifying people who might need closer follow-up or more intensive treatment after heart attacks or heart procedures.
CRP levels may also be useful in identifying people at risk of heart disease when cholesterol levels alone may not be helpful.
- a diet low in nutrients and higher in fat and refined carbs
- physical inactivity
- overweight and obesity
A family history of heart disease can also put you at a higher risk of heart disease.
No special preparation is necessary for this test. You may eat normally on the day of, and the test can happen at any time of day.
This test is done via a blood sample, so there will be a small needle involved.
What Happens During A Crp Test
A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This process usually takes less than five minutes.
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Coronary Heart Disease Risk
Arterial damage results from white blood cell invasion and inflammation within the wall. CRP is a general marker for inflammation and infection, so it can be used as a very rough proxy for heart disease risk. Since many things can cause elevated CRP, this is not a very specific prognostic indicator. Nevertheless, a level above 2.4 mg/L has been associated with a doubled risk of a coronary event compared to levels below 1 mg/L however, the study group in this case consisted of patients who had been diagnosed with unstable angina pectoris whether elevated CRP has any predictive value of acute coronary events in the general population of all age ranges remains unclear. Currently, C-reactive protein is not recommended as a cardiovascular disease screening test for average-risk adults without symptoms.
The American Heart Association and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have defined risk groups as follows:
- Low Risk: less than 1.0 mg/L
- Average risk: 1.0 to 3.0 mg/L
- High risk: above 3.0 mg/L
But hs-CRP is not to be used alone and should be combined with elevated levels of cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, and glucose level. Smoking, hypertension and diabetes also increase the risk level of cardiovascular disease.
When To Treat High Crp Levels
As an additional cardiovascular risk factor, CRP levels identify those people who are more at risk for cardiovascular disease. But how useful is that information to the physician and patient?
Cholesterol-lowering medication such as a statin have been shown to lower CRP levels. A CRP test taken out of context can have questionable value. For example, if youre at low cardiovascular risk and your CRP level is borderline high, the long-term benefit of taking a statin to keep your CRP low is up for debate and further study.
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How Is Osteomyelitis Managed Or Treated
A bone infection can take a long time to heal. The infection may clear up faster if you start treatment within three to five days of first noticing symptoms.
- Antibiotics: Antibiotics kill infection-causing bacteria. You may need antibiotics for four to eight weeks, starting with intravenous antibiotics in the hospital for a week or two. Youll then take medications by mouth for several weeks. Chronic infections may require months of antibiotics.
- Antifungals: To treat fungal infections, you may need to take oral antifungal medications for months.
- Needle aspiration: Your healthcare provider uses a fine needle to drain fluid and pus from the abscess.
- Pain relievers: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs treat pain and inflammation.
Surgery is sometimes needed to treat bone infections. Youll need antibiotics after surgery. Surgical options include:
- Bone surgery: Your healthcare provider surgically removes infected dead tissue and bone. This procedure may result in bone deformities.
- Spine surgery: People with vertebral osteomyelitis may need spine surgery. This procedure keeps vertebrae from collapsing and damaging your spinal cord, nerves and other parts of your nervous system.
What Does The Test Result Mean
The level of CRP in the blood is normally low.
Increased CRP level:
- A high or increasing amount of CRP in the blood suggests the presence of inflammation but will not identify its location or the cause.
- Suspected bacterial infectiona high CRP level can provide confirmation that you have a serious bacterial infection.
- Chronic inflammatory diseasehigh levels of CRP suggest a flare-up if you have a chronic inflammatory disease or that treatment has not been effective.
If the CRP level is initially elevated and drops, it means that the inflammation or infection is subsiding and/or responding to treatment.
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What Is The Difference Between Acute Inflammation And Chronic Inflammation
There are two types of inflammation:
- Acute inflammation: The response to sudden body damage, such as cutting your finger. To heal the cut, your body sends inflammatory cells to the injury. These cells start the healing process.
- Chronic inflammation: Your body continues sending inflammatory cells even when there is no outside danger. For example, in rheumatoid arthritis inflammatory cells and substances attack joint tissues leading to an inflammation that comes and goes and can cause severe damage to joints with pain and deformities.
Biochemical Analyses And Calculations
Hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured in EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood . Insulin was measured in serum and glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, fibrinogen and hsCRP in plasma using the Roche Cobas 6000 analyzer . LDL was calculated using the Friedewald equation. Cholesterol/HDL ratio was calculated. HbA1c values were determined by HPLC using National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program -certified instruments manufactured by BioRad Laboratories .
Hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP were measured in stored EDTA-plasma samples and analyzed in duplicate. hs-cTnT was measured using the human-high-sensitivity-cTnT ELISA sandwich assay from MyBioSource, with a detection range of 0.5150 ng/L . Elevated hs-cTnT was defined as the 99th percentile of 14 ng/L, indicating subclinical myocardial damage, in an apparently healthy population, aged 2070 years. Therefore, in this study hs-cTnT concentrations of 14 ng/L were considered elevated and indicative of subclinical myocardial damage.
NT-proBNP was measured with the human-NT-proBNP ELISA sandwich assay from Abcam, with a detection range of 21.91400 pg/mL . As disrupted neurohormonal homeostasis may be reflected by NT-proBNP levels < 50 pg/mL, NT-proBNP < 50 pg/mL were considered low, and indicative of subclinical neurohormonal dysregulation.
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